Effect of eye injury

Eye injury can be a consequence of vehicular trauma, blunt trauma, sports or contact injury. Eye injury can also result from foreign object impaction or due to chemicals entering the eye. Without timely management by Eye Specialist in Lahore there can be serious consequences including permanent visual loss. Read on to know more about effects of eye injury:

What are eye injuries?

Eye injuries can be hidden as well as manifest. In certain situations, eye injuries are not evident until they become really serious. In any case, one should not attempt to treat eye injuries on their own. 

The structure of the face is such that the eye is well protected from injury. Surrounding the eye is the strong bone of the orbit which protects it from injury. In addition, there are the eyelids covering the delicate refractive medium of cornea, which forms a barrier to foreign objects and media. Minor injuries and impacts can therefore be well-tolerated by the eyes.  

However, serious eye injuries can result in permanent vision loss and blindness; therefore, an ophthalmologist or healthcare provider should examine the eye for signs of injury as soon as possible.  

What are the common causes of eye injury?

The common causes of eye injuries include:

  • Black eye: this is one of the commonest eye injuries, seen after trauma, accidents and contact injuries. With black eye, there is swelling and bruising around the eye, which can be painful for the patient and also interfere with vision. If the eyelid is cut, it can cause bleeding and need surgical repair.   
  • Burns and irritation: fumes of chemicals, acids and alkalis can cause direct burns to the surface of the eye as well as injury inside the eye after penetrating the anterior chamber. Without proper management, this type of injury may lead to permanent visual loss. 
  • Bleeding: another common eye injury is conjunctival and subconjunctival hemorrhage. The cause of conjunctival hemorrhage can be as minor as coughing strongly, straining and even accelerated blood pressure. Conjunctival bleeding can also be the consequence of contact injury and trauma. Conjunctival and sub-conjunctival bleeding is seen with naked eye on the white part of the eye. 

Bleeding from trauma and injury can also occur in the anterior chamber of the eye i.e. between the iris and the cornea. This is called hyphema and is seen on detailed examination of the eye. 

  • Corneal abrasion: the refractive media on the front of the eye which is responsible for vision is called cornea. The cornea is clear and transparent to allow for entry of light. Any opacity or abrasion in the cornea can cause impairment of vision, photophobia, watering and pain. Corneal abrasions can be the result of foreign objects, scratches from finger nails and even contact lens injury.  
  • Foreign body impaction: if a foreign object impaction occurs, it can scratch on the cornea and cause pain, watering and vision problems. Common foreign bodies in the eye include: debris, shattered glass and saw dust.  
  • Fracture of floor of orbit: impactful injuries and fistfights can cause even the strong orbital bones to fracture. Orbital fractures can cause trapping and even tearing of muscle fibers.  
  • Retinal detachment: injuries that can cause permanent visual loss include retinal detachments. Apart from trauma, age and high myopia are the risk factors of retinal detachment. If the neurosensory layer of retina detaches from the back of the eye, it can cause sudden loss of vision.  

What are the symptoms of eye injury?

Eye injuries warrant immediate assessment and management by experts ophthalmologists like Dr. Aurangzeb Shaikh. The symptoms of eye injury include:

  • Swelling around the eye 
  • Pain in the eye especially on touch and movement. Patient can even find it painful to close the eye. 
  • Redness and bruising 
  • Bleeding in and around the eye 
  • Restricted eye movement can occur if there is muscle injury
  • Doubling of vision or diplopia 
  • Changes in the appearance of the eye such as protrusion of the eyeball. 
  • Change in the size of the pupils of both eyes 
  • Floaters or black spots in vision 

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